Release Notes for Opioid Dependence


Distribution 5.0 of the NIDA Opioid Dependence Genetics Initiative contains 8282 subjects in 5083 families from Studies 1, 3, 5, 14, 17, 18, and 24 (aka START) including dummy pedigree connector records and counting singletons as a family (4097 singletons). N=6408 subjects have blood samples. Version 5.0 adds Studies 18 and 24, which included 2157 additional cases. Note that Study 18 (Nelson) controls with blood samples (n=525) were included in this distribution for investigators who want to repeat case‐control analysis.

Distribution 5.1 of the NIDA Opioid Dependence Genetics Initiative contains 8857 subjects in 5720 families from the same studies as Opioid 5.0, see below. N=7034 subjects have cell lines.

Opioid 5.1 consists of an update from Study 5 (Kreek) with a net of n=623 additional subjects (n=644 new, n=21 removed), compared to Opioid 5.0. All new subjects have cell lines with n=434 opioid unaffected subjects and n=210 opioid cases.

Distribution 5.2 of the NIDA Opioid Dependence Genetics Initiative conforms the columns of the main distribution file to a common metadata format; content remains the same.

Distribution 5.3 of the NIDA Opioid Dependence Genetics Initiative removes one record with updated consent status. All other content remains the same as Opioid 5.2.

Distribution 5.4 of the NIDA Opioid Dependence Genetics Initiative is a minor update with cleaned interview data for Study 14 (Lachman). The distribution file is unchanged from Opioid 5.3.

Distribution 5.5 of the NIDA Opioid Dependence Genetics Initiative is a minor update with the addition of plasma id to the distribution file; all other data remains the same.

Distribution 5.6 of the NIDA Opioid Dependence Genetics Initiative is a minor update that differs from 5.5 by the removal of n=885 records from Study 1, which is now in the Opioid-Cocaine distribution due to dual ascertainment of families/subjects with opioid or cocaine dependence.

Distribution 5.7 is an update that standardizes the order of columns in the distribution file; also cell_id and DNG were updated.


1. Distribution file. Obligate No. Dependence variable code 2 = “Obligate no” means that the item must be coded “no” because of responses to other items; eg. subject responds “never smoked”, therefore nicotine dependence must be “No”. Current studies in the distribution (Studies 1, 5) did not distinguish between obligatory “no” and unaffected status.

2. Distribution File. Family race. If more than one individual race reported within pedigree, then family race was set to “Other” for all records in pedigree. If one individual race reported, then all records assigned that race, even those missing individual race.

3. Distribution File. Study 1. Original codes for dependence and interview items were 0=Unknown, 1=Unaffected, 2=Affected, Blank=Not Interviewed. There were no Blank values. These values were recoded to (SAS dot missing)=Unknown, 1=Unaffected, 5=Affected to conform with the previous distribution file.

4. Pedigree drawings. Shading of pedigree symbols. Full shading = opioid dependence. ¾ shading = other illicit drug dep (cocaine, stimulant, sedative, marijuana), ½ shading = alcohol dep, ¼ shading = tobacco dep.

5. Online queries “Detailed sample information”. Model 1 = opioid dependence. Model 2 = Model 1 (opioid dep) or other illicit drug dep. Model3 = opioid AND alcohol dep. Model4 = opioid AND cannabis dep. Model5 = opioid AND cocaine dep. Model6 = opioid AND sedative dep. Model7 = opioid AND stimulant dep. Model8 = opioid AND tobacco dep.

6. Distribution File. Study 5. Assessment for Study 8 was carried out at the Study 5 site, using the same instrument. Study 8 subjects are coded as study=5 to be consistent with Rutgers blood dataset.

7. Distribution File. Study 5. Added 31 dummy connectors for related subjects to form 24 pedigrees. The remaining subjects are singleton cases. Ind_id of dummy records contains “KRD”. Two families have members from different sites, eg. father from site 50, child from site 51. However, fam_id prefix coded as site=50 (families 50‐00011, 50‐00012).

8. Distribution File. Study 5. Twin status recoded as Yes = Unknown zygosity.

9. Diagnostic Interview. Study 3. Interview table 24 was not included in DIGS file because there were some problems when read the raw data of DIGS table 24 (file text24).

10. Distribution File. Study 14. Other substance dependence defined as hallucinogen, PCP, benzodiazapine or other substance dependence (not specified).

11. Distribution File. Study 14. Other substance abuse defined as hallucinogen, PCP, benzodiazapine or other substance abuse (not specified).

12. Distribution File. Study 14. Dummy parent records added to families with sib data, *D1=father, *D2=mother. A dummy family id was assigned to singletons but no dummy parents.

13. Distribution File. Study 14. All sib pairs were coded as full sibs. Investigators note 3 pairs were MZ twins, 32 pairs were unrelated, 2 pairs were parent‐offspring, 66 pairs were half‐sibs, 8 pairs were more related than half‐sibs, but less related than full sibs; however, at time of submission to the repository, they were unable to locate the cleaned pedigree file.

14. Distribution File. Study 14. Study 14 sent updated family relationships based on genotypes analyzed by RELCHECK, PREST, and ALTERTEST. Father and mother ids were created to reflect this analysis, eg. father id changed to make half sib; family identifier was not changed. The results of the cleaning by the study investigators were not conclusive for N=36 pedigrees; sibs in these pedigrees were left as full sibs so that investigators using the data may do their own cleaning; original Study 14 documentation is in excel file Family relationship for Rutgers_final.xlsx where inconclusive pedigrees are noted as “Relcheck/Altertest disagree”, “no data”, “other” or “unclear”.

15. Distribution File. Study 17. All subjects were diagnosed as “opioid addicted” (DSM‐IV) by the addiction severity index.

16. Interview dataset. Study 17. Ethnicity. 1=European, 2= African‐American, 3=part AA part European.

17. Distribution File. Study 17. Cell id = 05NA21416 had the same study id (aka NIDA id) 70‐224 as another cell id. After checking the original phlebotomy forms, it was determined the same NIDA id was assigned in error to two different individuals at the time of blood draw. This was corrected by re‐assigning NIDA id = 70‐500 to Cell id = 05NA21416 in the study and Rutgers datasets.

18. Distribution file. Study 18. All cases are singletons, no dummy parents added. Fam_id set to ind_id.

19. Distribution file. Study 18. Family race was based on percent of ancestor codes. If missing ancestry > 0.5 then family race set to missing. If any aboriginal or other ancestry, family race set to Other. European and Scandinavian ancestry set to White.

20. Distribution file. Study 18. Dxsys variable is for opioid dependence. Opioid dependence is positive for either DSM4 or DSM3r opioid dependence. Remaining DSM dx are DSM4.

21. Distribution file. Study 18. Control subjects with blood samples (n=____) were included in Distribution 5.0 for investigators who want to replicate the original case‐control analysis. Control subjects without blood samples were removed (n=___).

22. Dist file. Study 24. Stimulant dep and abuse set to Amphetamines.

23. Dist file. Study 24. Race/ Ethnicity. Study forms allowed selection of more than one race, in which case the subject was coded as “Other”. Subject with African‐American race and Hispanic ethnicity were coded as “African‐American”. Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islanders coded as “Other”.